FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE (F.M.D)
DEFINATION = it is an acute contagious viral disease of cattle buffalo sheep goat and pigs ( not of horses) and it is characterized by vesicles on dorsal side of tongue cheeks and comes and at coronet joints; excessive salivation ,less mortality and more economic losses .
WHY MORE ECONOMIC LOSSES:=
1) Less production of milk and spread of disease in outbreak.
2) Bullock becomes panters.
3) the skin of the suffered animals is not fit for export.
4) decrease growth rate and meat production
5) due to vesicles and coronet joint and in hoof there is deformation and shedding of hoof
6) abortion in pregnant animal.
( mouth of cattle )
1) exotic breed are more susceptible.
2) cross breed are less susceptible.
3) Indian breeds are susceptible less than cross breed.
4) Animal suspectible are cattle ,buffalo , sheep ,goat and pigs .
5) Vesicles near the mouth is seen in human beings.
ETIOLOGY = It is caused by virus , Stain of virus are A.O.C Asia SAT -1 ,SAT -2 ,SAT – 3 .The virus is sensitive to formalin ,caustic soda , U.V rays and resistant to cold.
1) By direct inhalation
2) By contaminated feed and water.
3) By direct contact with affected animal
4) By saliva
5) mechanical transmission.
SYMPTOMS = In early stages:-
1) High temprature (105°F)
2) Dull and depressed animal
3) Vesicles on dorsal side of tongue which are large size as compared to vesicles of rinderpest.
4) Vesicles on cheeks ,gums , coronet joint, hoof and also on udder and teat that may lead to mestitis.
5) Excesive salivation ,pain in mouth and difficulty in mastication and anorexia .
6) Difficulty in walking .
7) Decreased milk yield.
8) Abortion in pregnent animals. If no treatment is given then secondary infections occur .if no secondary infection then animal becomes healthy in 7 days.
9) Bullock becomes panters.
10) Less mortality in large animals but in infant 100% mortality is confirmed due to pneumonia , high temprature.