DEFINATION = A metabolic disease of Lactating cows and buffalo occurring within a few days to a few weeks after calving and it is characterized by hypoglycemia (definition of glycogen ) kentonuria (ketone in urine) , ketonemia ( ketone in blood ), high excitability ,decreased milk yield ,loss of weight and incordination .For eg – high milk production) exceed energy intake and result in a negative energy balance. Ketotic cows often have low blood glucose (blood sugar) concentrations.
ETIOLOGY OR CAUSES =
1- Less feeding of carbohydrates in diet of animal.
2- Chronic indigestion in animal.
3- Mainly the energy stored in liver as glycogen and this glycogen is utilise why the animal for energy when no storage of glycogen Then animal get this energy from fat and protein and there is formation of Ketone bodies and this Ketone bodies is harmful for body.
4- Ketones are a byproduct of this process. These are acids that build up in the blood and leave the body in the urine. In small amounts, they indicate that the body is breaking down fat. However, high levels of ketones can poison the body, leading to a condition called ketoacidosis.
KETOSIS SYMPTOMS- There are two types of symptoms in ketosis. In some cases only one type of symptoms are seen but in some cases both types of symptoms are seen in animal
1- wasting form 2 – nervous form .
1- wasting form =
a) in it sweet order of acetone in urine and milk and respiration is found.
b) animal suffering from anorexia
c) milk production of animal become decreased day by day
d) respiration rate and Pulse rate normal in animal
e) weakness due to decreasing fat day by day in animal
f) loss of weight in animal
g) animal lying in a ‘ milk fever posture ‘
h) constipation ,faeces covered by mucous.
i) Normal urine secretion (5- 10 liter per day in cattle ) decreased .
j) rumination is decrease in animal .
2) Nervous form –
a) Trembling of animal is found .
b ) Circling movement of animal .
c) Pressing head against wall by animal .
d) Apparent blindness in animal.
e) incordination of animal.
1) By history ( loss of weight and weakness )
2) By symptoms ( wasting and nervous form )
3) By blood examination – hypoglecemia.
4) By urine exam- ketone bodies is positive.
TREATMENT ( FIRST AID ) =
1) Dextrose saline 50% : 1 liter I/V
2) Dextrose saline 20% : 2 liter I/V
3) Dextrose saline 10% : 2-3 liter I/V
4) High energy diet or glycerine : 200 ml diluted in water orally
5) Ammonium lactate / Sodium Lactate / Calcium lactate : 200gm orally
6) vitamin B. complex : 10 ml intra muscular
7) injection betnesol or dexona : 6ml intra muscule . This injection converts protien into glucose
8) Galog powder – 50g for 20 days orally
1) High enrgy diet to animal eg. gruel
2) light exercise for animal